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søndag 19. november 2017
Det første bærbare uret Skriv ut E-post
lørdag 06. desember 2008

 


PETER HENLEIN

urmakeren som fikk æren av å lage det første bærbare uret.

Slik så uret ut.

Tidlig på 1500-tallet hadde urmakere i Nord Italia og Nurenberg laget noe som ingen hadde gjort tidligere. De hadde klart å lage et lite bærbart ur som la grunnlaget for det moderne lommeuret. Det diskuteres i dag hvem som var først ute, og det er mange som mener at det var i Nord-Italia de først kom med bærbare ur, i dette fantastiske området rundt Firenze der mye av vår mekaniske og kulturelle arv kommer fra. I mange bøker og spesiellt i Tyskland, vil mange si at det var urmakeren Peter Henlein var den første.
For nærmere 20 år siden, var jeg i Nurenberg og besøkte det historiske museet med Peter Henleins ur. Jeg fikk dengang beskjed om at informasjonen om Henlein var trukket tilbake da det var kommet opplysninger som tydet på at han ikke var den første. De var altså usikre på hvem som laget det første bærbare uret. Uansett er dette og Peter Henlein det nærmeste vi kommer i å knytte et bærbart ur til en spesifik person, Peter Henlein.

Grisen var meget viktig for urets konstruksjon og gang!
Hvis dere ser nøye på bildet av urverket, ser dere to stive små pigger som står opp på en arm under den svingende balansen. Dette er to svinebuster,- to hår fra grisens pels. Disse hår bidro til at vi fikk de første bærbare ur til å fungere. De var med en suveren spenst og kunne her fungere som en liten tilbakeslagsfjær. Den svingende balanse hadde på det avbildede urverk to sjinkler (eker) som traff hver sin svinebust under sin svingende bevegelse. Svinebusten ga litt etter og ga balansesjinkelen et puff tilbake. Slik holdt uret seg i gang under bevegelse. Grisen var en viktig faktor i urets utvikling! Det uret jeg så i Nurenberg hadde ikke en svingende balanse, men en svingende arm, en foliot, som traff samme svinebust og fungerte som dette urverk vi her ser. Det er mye som tyder på at det netopp var den svingende arm, en foliot, som var først og ikke en balansering som vi her ser.

Spindelgang
Urverket hadde en spindelgang og en snekkeoverføring fra urets fjær til hjulverket. Det var meget vanskelig å få uret til å gå nogenlunde presist ved fullt opptrekk og til nedgått fjær. I Tyskland brukte urmakerne en spennarm, en Stackfreed, som motspenn når fjæra var opptrukket og stram. Den slakket seg da under urets gang og kompenserte for fjæras forskjell i spenst. Det var Engelskmennene som innførte snekke og kjede på sine spindelur, og på det avbildede urverket her, er det en konisk snekke med en svinesnor som kompensasjon, mye lik den som senere kom i alle engelske spindelur. Men selve spindelgangen hadde sin begrensing i nøyaktighet. Det var vanlig oppfatning at uret kunne forandre seg mye på ett døgn, ja opptill 15-20 minutter. Men vi skal huske på at disse ur var meget kostbare og ble i stor grad benyttet av landets øverste personligheter. Det var nok ikke urets nøyaktighet som var det viktigste, men det å kunne ha en mekanisk selvgående og flyttbart klokke som tikket !- det var skrytesak no, 1.
Så send grisen en liten takk for at den bidro til urets utvikling på 1500-tallet i middelalderen!

Skrevet av Erik Ødegaard

Her kommer en liten historie på engelsk om Peter Henleins historie.

With the turn of time from 15th to 16th century, the dark middle ages had – according to the history books – already ended, however the customs were still rather harsh and rough and the rule of force was generally followed.
In the night of the 7th September of the year 1504, there was a scuffle in the streets of Nuremberg, in the course of which the locksmith Georg Glaser was killed. Suspected were three locksmiths, which were part of the affray, named Georg Heuss, Peter Henlein and Paul Teffler. Peter Henlein fled afterwards into the Franciscan mendicant convent and asked the brothers of the order for protection and sanctuary from the prosecution of the authorities.
In the forced quiet behind cloister walls and during the inner contemplation, the first thoughts may have arisen for making an especially small timekeeper, which ran in all circumstances and which you could loosely carry about the body. So far there were only church, wall or table clocks, which only ran if they stood absolutely still and solid on one position. Supposedly, a pomander, which he had seen and bought in the convent, inspired him so much that he wanted to build a clock into this little metal orb. In the 16th century, the pomanders or fases were widespread. They were small, orb-like capsules filled with different scents (musk, ambergris, cibet), which were carried by their owner - for example on a string or chain - and spread aromatic scents. Furthermore, they were thought to have healing or disease (especially the plague!) averting powers and protection against evil daemons. As the plague raged in Nuremberg in the year 1505, it was surely more than logical for Henlein to use such a pomander as a casing for his first watch.
As so much in history, the beginning of Peter Henlein’s life also is shrouded in darkness. As the son of the cutler Hans Heinlein he was probably born around 1480 to 1485 in Nuremberg. We do not know anything about his youth or his schooling. He later started an apprenticeship with a locksmith. In his time as a journeyman he occupied himself – as it was quite common with locksmiths at the time – also with the making of clocks.
During his later 4-year asylum in the monastery, he was granted 22-times free conduct for the trials. Although nearly all involved parties protested their innocence, two locksmiths were imposed with a high fine by the city council (during the trial, which took place on 23. January 1510). Peter Heuss had to pay 40 florins to the bereaved of the victim.
Although reconciliation with the city council and the relatives of the dead was reached in the year 1508, Peter Henlein was fined with 21 florins, which however he – according to historical records – only paid in 1515 as reconciliation sum to the bereaved of the killed.
Henlein’s life was overshadowed by the fate of his brother Hermann, a cutler. He also must have been a very skilled craftsman. He became officially noted after he furnished sheaths of knifes and probably also daggers, which he had made, with engraved silver or gold fittings and even made a silver bowl. By this, he encroached into the craft of goldsmiths and also promptly provoked complaints from this profession. Several times, he was cautioned for it by the council and in October 1516 was even sconced with imprisonment in a tower. In the night from 22. to 23. November 1516, he made an even more grave appearance: Hermann Henlein then killed a beggar girl of approximately 8 years and seriously injured a second beggar girl. According to his own account, one night after visiting a pub at the main market, he heard near the Frauenkirche someone hassle a small girl. Apparently, he then entered into a scuffle with the perpetrator with the „were“ (sword or shortsword). The council later declared that Hermann Henlein was the instigator of the crime „which can be likened to a murder“. The case, which belonged probably into the area of sexual crimes, was from the beginning forcefully persecuted by the council. This becomes particularly apparent in the fact that the council posted the huge reward of 100 florins for the seizure of the perpetrator and guaranteed exemption of punishment to possible accomplices. Only on the 12. May 1517, the full suspicion fell upon Hermann and the order to seize him was issued.
Henlein fled thereupon to Roth in the asylum of the margrave. There he asked for escort, but it was denied. His position in Nuremberg deteriorated further by him bringing the case in front of the imperial district court of the shire Nuremberg. Finally he fled to Denmark without waiting for a decision from the shire court.
There, the skilled cutler entered into the service of King Christian. He received the royal command to travel to Nuremberg to purchase armaments; as a precaution, the Nuremberg council was asked from Denmark to sanction this journey. However, a sharp refusal was issued from this side. Hermann thereupon travelled alternatively to Augsburg to avoid the looming arrest. However, he was also recognized in Augsburg and was arrested. The Nuremberg council corresponded in this matter several times with the Augsburgers and emphasised the graveness of this crime. Peter Henlein tried now to help his brother by asking the council to stand up for him in Augsburg. This request however was also declined like the journey to Nuremburg. Thereupon, Henlein himself wrote an intercession to Augsburg, in which he detailed the facts favourably for his brother. Above all, he evidently wanted to instil the impression that the Nuremberg council supported his writing. As a precaution, the Augsburgers sent the letter however to the Nuremberg council. This council reported back, that they had refused a standing up for Hermann, but had released Peter to write to Augsburg on his own accord. Even in the case that Henlein made up with the relatives of the murder victim, they had made him no promises. Furthermore, they would leave the decision in this case to the Augsburg council. Peter Henlein however, was called in front of the Nuremberg council, was taken to task for his actions and was threatened with punishment. He excused himself that his account was made „from a lack of judgement“. Nevertheless, Peter again asked the Nuremberg council for intercession for his brother, which again was refused. On 18. August, Hermann Henlein is sentenced to death. Death sentence of the Augsburg town court on Herman Henlein (in the original): 18. August 1523 „Herman Hänlin von Nürmberg, der da gefanngen und gebunden steet und Im an sein Leyb und leben geet, der hat verschiner Zeit daselbst zu Nurmberg mutwilliglich und unverursacht bey nächtlicher weyl an zwayen klain mädlin merklich Leybsbeschädigung beganngen, das ain hart verwundt und das annder gar todgeschlagen, darauf ain Erber Rat der Stadt Augspurg mit urtail und dannocht auß gnaden zu Recht erkannt und gesprochen hat, das der genant Herman Hänlin mit plutgeer hannd vom Leben zum tod gericht werden soll, davor sich meniglich wisse zu verhüten.“ [translated: Herman Hänlin from Nuremberg, who is there caught and bound and fearing body and soul, he has in a different time at Nuremburg wilfully and without cause during the night caused distinct damage to the body of two small maids, that one was badly wounded and the other even killed, therefore the council of the city of Augsburg has judged and from grade recognized justly and proclaimed that the mentioned Herman Hänlin should be hanged by bloody hand from life to death to enable him to be saved …] On 23. August 1523, Hermann Henlein was finally executed by the sword in Augsburg, and Peter Henlein so lost his brother.
With Peter Henlein, the name of a man was mentioned, who became later in conjunction with the chronometer sure the most well-known and most popular master in Nuremberg, possibly the whole world. It might bother some peace loving people to have especially this name mentioned in conjunction with such an unpleasant situation like affray and homicide – however we have to take into account the completely different circumstances of that time!
With date of the 8. September 1504 in any case, the life of a person know to us for one of the most incisive inventions, was made public. He had specialised as locksmith in clock making. For the council of the town of Nuremberg, he built several town hall and tower clocks.
Peter Henlein invented the first portable clock. He probably fit it into a pomander. The problem, which Henlein mastered, lay in the shrinking of the movement and the mainspring. He fitted a pig bristle to his clocks, which gave a recoil to the balance wheel.
Different to tower or wall clocks, Henlein’s clocks did not need any weights or pendulum; they did not need to hang, but ran in any position. The use of mobile watches, which run in any position and without weight drive, nobody can conceive a world without it now. The whole course of life, constantly controlled by a personally work chronometer, would not be possible without the pocket watch or its successor, the wrist watch.

 


PETER-HENLEIN-MONUMENT IN NUREMBERG


TO THE INVENTOR OF THE POCKET WATCHES
PETER HENLEIN IN COMMEMORATION
THE TOWN OF NURMBERG
THE GERMAN WATCHMAKERS LEAGUE

 

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